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The Battle of Buxar | UPSC CSE
The Battle of Buxar | UPSC CSEAbraham Accords | UPSC CSE
The Abraham Accords are a joint statement between State of Israel, the United Arab Emirates, and the United States of America, reached on August 13, 2020. Subsequently, the term was used to refer collectively to agreements between Israel and the United Arab Emirates (the Israel–United Arab Emirates normalization agreement) and Bahrain, respectively (the Bahrain–Israel normalization agreement). The statement marked the first public normalization of relations between an Arab country and Israel since that of Jordan in 1994. The original Abraham Accords were signed by the Emirati Foreign Minister Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the Bahraini Foreign Minister Abdullatif bin Rashid Al Zayani, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, and U.S. President Donald Trump on September 15, 2020, at the South Lawn of the White House in Washington, D.C. The Accords were negotiated by Jared Kushner and Avi Berkowitz. The agreement with the UAE was officially titled the Abraham Accords Peace Agreement: Treaty of Peace, Diplomatic Relations and Full Normalization Between the United Arab Emirates and the State of Israel. The agreement between Bahrain and Israel was officially titled the Abraham Accords: Declaration of Peace, Cooperation, and Constructive Diplomatic and Friendly Relations, and was announced by the United States on September 11, 2020. The accords are named after Abraham to emphasize the shared origin of belief between Judaism and Islam, both of which are Abrahamic religions that strictly espouse the monotheistic worship of the God of Abraham.
11 mins
Bad Bank | UPSC CSEEarthquakes | Effects of Earthquakes | UPSC CSEEarthquakes | Causes of Earthquakes | UPSC CSEAfghanistan War History | Britain | USA | Russia | Cold War | UPSC CSE
Afghanistan's strategic position in Asia has led to its repeated failed invasion, so much so that it is called the "graveyard of empires" (likely erroneously, as no empire has fallen as direct or proximate result of invading). The British spent a century trying to control it starting in 1838, with disastrous results. Eventually the British acknowledged they could not directly control the country and installed a semi-puppet regime in 1879. Afghanistan regained its independence in 1919 and was under monarchical rule thereafter. Afghanistan's political order began to break down in the 1970s. First, Mohammed Daoud Khan seized power in the July 1973 Afghan coup d'état, where the monarchy was overthrown in favour of an autocratic republic. Daoud Khan was then killed in the April 1978 Saur Revolution, a coup in which the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) took control of the government, ushering in 40 years of conflict. PDPA pushed for a socialist transformation by abolishing arranged marriages, promoting mass literacy and reforming land ownership. This undermined the traditional tribal order and provoked opposition across rural areas. The PDPA's crackdown and execution of thousands of political prisoners was met with open rebellion including the 1979 Herat uprising. PDPA was beset by internal leadership differences and was affected by an internal coup on 11 September 1979 when Hafizullah Amin ousted Nur Muhammad Taraki. The Soviet Union, sensing PDPA weakness, invaded three months later, to depose Amin. The entry of Soviet forces in Afghanistan in December 1979 intensified the Cold War and prompted the Soviet rivals, the United States, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and China to support rebels fighting against the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. In contrast to the secular and socialist government, which controlled the cities, religiously motivated mujahideen held sway in the majority of the countryside. The CIA worked with Pakistan's Inter-Service Intelligence to funnel foreign support for the mujahideen. The war also attracted Arab volunteers known as "Afghan Arabs", including Osama bin Laden. After the withdrawal of the Soviet military from Afghanistan in May 1989, the PDPA regime under Mohammad Najibullah held on until 1992 when the dissolution of the Soviet Union deprived the regime of aid and the defection of Uzbek general Abdul Rashid Dostum cleared the approach to Kabul. The mujahideen took control of Kabul on 16 April 1992, removed Najibullah from power and proclaimed the founding of the Islamic State of Afghanistan.
10 mins
Tiananmen Square Incident 1989 | June Fourth Incident | UPSC CSEUyghur Muslims | China | UPSC CSESatyagraha | Mahatma Gandhi | UPSC CSEGeorge Washington | Youth and Early Life | UPSC CSEMrinal Sen | UPSC CSEAmerican Civil War till 1862 | UPSC CSESatavahana Dynasty | UPSC CSEThird Battle of Panipat 1761 | UPSC CSESecond Battle of Panipat 1556 | UPSC CSEFirst Battle of Panipat 1526 | UPSC CSEChina Video Game Regulations | UPSC CSESoviet Union | Union of Soviet Socialist Republic | USSR | UPSC CSEMyanmar 2021 coup d'etat | National League for Democracy (NLD) | Tatmadaw | Myint Swe | Min Aung Hlaing | Aung San Suu Kyi | UPSC CSELeaders of the new Afghanistan Government | Afghanistan War | Taliban | UPSC CSE