Are you in the mood to chat chromosomes, specifically the X chromosome? If so, have we got the perfect episode for you! You may have come across the definition of Turner syndrome as a genetic condition resulting from the partial or complete loss of an X chromosome, but what does that actually mean? What is the X chromosome, what does it do, and why is it so important? We attempt to answer these questions with our exploration into the biology of Turner syndrome before setting our sights on the who’s and when’s of the X chromosome and Turner syndrome. Our path through the history of these bundled packets of genetic material wouldn’t be complete without some fascinating detours, such as an exploration into the inspiring life of Nettie Stevens and the beautiful variations in sex chromosomes found in the animal kingdom. Finally, we wrap up our episode by taking stock of how much progress we’ve made with Turner syndrome treatment and research but also how far we still have to go. Tune in for all this and more!