On December 18, in Montreal, Canada, 188 governments that are parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) agreed on a new framework to halt species extinction and loss of bio- diversity. Known as the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), it sets out four goals for 2050 and 23 targets for 2030 to ensure that 30% of land, inland water, marine and coastal ecosystems are protected. At present, only 17% of terrestrial and 10% of marine ecosystems are protected.
So, how realistic are these goals? How will the signatories be monitored to ensure that they are on course to meet their targets? Since conservation and restoration initiatives will not come cheap, what is the total estimated cost and how will the funds be raised, especially for developing countries?